The new economy is characterised by the following major trends, which constitute as many challenges as opportunities for the industry of the Future:
- a much more developed, shared global level focused on optimisation
- a local level, that of the users’ software bubble (all the fixed or mobile interfaces that they have access to) and its uses, by which we make available to the user, all the services that he requires to exercise his duties with a maximum of empowerment
- an intermediate level which was previously very bureaucratic and obese, and which, in the new economy, is lean, automated, rapid, in short disintermediated and dematerialised.
Societal Responsibility is a component of the implementation of Sustainable Development. It characterises the will of an Organisation (CSR for Corporate Social Responsibility), to integrate environmental and social considerations into its strategy so as to be able to take account of the impacts of its activities and decisions on the environment and on the society.[vbcrlf][vbcrlf]
An industrial tool and a supply chain, be they avant-garde and highly organised, will not create value unless they are harnessed to an identified use, demand and need. Thus, all reflection on the industry of the future must be based on a wider reflection which considers the interactions of the demands of customers, the society, its partners and the financial capacities that can be mobilised. Thus, for a company, all reflection on the industry of the future is part of its strategic reflection. We will therefore consider aspects as wide-ranging as: long-term planning; value chains and offers of the future; new economic models; marketing and strategic breakthroughs; investment capacity; technological and geographical alliances; internationalisation and development of exports; portfolio of solutions, markets, territories and partners; agile and extended company.
A company continually improving the cleanliness of its production tool, in the framework of a sustainable vision and implementing efficient project management (Kaisen, 5S, etc.) will be able to reduce its land occupancy considerably. This gain in surface area could be used to increase its business or to launch new businesses. A clean factory becomes compatible with the modern town, which brings the work place nearer to housing and therefore contributes to reducing the carbon footprint linked to travelling. In general, the industry of the future protects shared assets.
New economic models such as Uberisation, the circular economy, the economy of functionality will develop. The notion of property will be profoundly changed and places of value creation also. The capacity to collect and exploit data (the cloud, big data) in order to propose solutions to one’s customers will become an essential thread for the new industrial strategies and partnerships which are coming into existence. The main idea behind these models is to protect shared assets, that non-renewable or over-exploited resources: energy raw materials, water, air, waste in particular by working on the life cycle of everything we manufacture. The key words are eco-design, energy optimisation, waste recycling, etc. The second-most important idea is to think more about the utility rendered than about products: do I need to own a vehicle or do I need to travel from one place to another (car sharing websites; car hire, etc.). The third idea is to create value in another way by exploiting collected data (Uberisation).
Value chains know no frontiers. The extended enterprise is an enterprise networked with its suppliers and customers, capable of reconstituting its value chain to adapt to changes in the market and in technologies, while developing digital intimacy with its suppliers and its customers, so as to maintain the trust and favour innovation.
An agile enterprise has flexible production methods and reconfigurable production tools, capable of supplying individualised, sustainable products and services at competitive prices, in small and medium quantities.
The new agile manufacturing processes, which enable rapid responses to changes in demand (quantity, quality, evolution of the product, adaptation to specific needs, etc.), which can reorganise quickly: assignment of operators, reorganisation of the workshop, interoperability of the equipment, flexible and interactive relationship with the network of suppliers, etc.
The companies that overperform on a long-term basis have the following key points in common:
- they know have to change strategy and trade specialisation to anticipate and adapt to their environment,
- they know how to develop and grow their portfolio of alliances and know how to adapt the territories where they operate,
- they take an interest in the uses of the customers of their customers (customer passion and user experiences),
- they have allowed their customer to dream, to project into the future and know how to dream and to project themselves into the future,
- they have succeeded in constructing an enduring strategy and continuous improvement culture,
- they know how to mobilise their skills and those of their partners and their customers,
- they are committed to a multi-niche development logic (to get out of synchronous economic cycles and reduce their dependence), with an obsession for avoiding the “ordinary” and avoiding being compared with others and offering a different economic model from that of the competitors.
Immaterial capital refers to all the non-monetary and non-physical assets held by the company contributing to the efficient achievement of production and the supply of goods and services. It is made up of human capital (individual capacities, knowledge, skills, know-how, etc.), the relational capital (customers, community, suppliers, investors, partners, etc.), structural capital linked to processes (structure of information, databases, information flows, flow of products and services, financial flows, forms of cooperation, strategic processes, etc.) and structural capital linked to renewal and development (brand image, specialisation, models, new forms of cooperation, culture, copyright, ICT, patents, etc.).
Immaterial capital makes it possible to distinguish, between two companies that have the same turnover, immatériel , the one with the greater potential for value creation in the future.